Isaiah 7 Prophecy of Immanuel
And it came to pass in the days of Ahaz the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, that Rezin the king of Syria, and Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, went up toward Jerusalem to war against it, but could not prevail against it. 2
And it was told the house of David, saying, Syria is confederate with Ephraim. And his heart was moved, and the heart of his people, as the trees of the wood are moved with the wind.
Then said the LORD unto Isaiah, Go forth now to meet Ahaz, thou, and Shearjashub thy son, at the end of the conduit of the upper pool to the highway of the fuller's field; 4
And say unto him, Take heed, and be quiet; fear not, neither be fainthearted for the two tails of these smoking firebrands, for the fierce anger of Rezin with Syria, and of the son of Remaliah. 5 Because Syria, Ephraim, and the son of Remaliah, have taken evil counsel against thee, saying, 6
Let us go up against Judah, and vex it, and let us make a breach therein for us, and set a king in the midst of it, even the son of Tabeal:
Thus saith the Lord GOD, It shall not stand, neither shall it come to pass. 8
For the head of Syria is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is Rezin; and within threescore and five years shall Ephraim be broken, that it be not a people. 9
And the head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the head of Samaria is Remaliah's son. If ye will not believe, surely ye shall not be established.
Moreover the LORD spake again unto Ahaz, saying, 11
Ask thee a sign of the LORD thy God; ask it either in the depth, or in the height above. 12
But Ahaz said, I will not ask, neither will I tempt the LORD. 13
And he said, Hear ye now, O house of David; Is it a small thing for you to weary men, but will ye weary my God also?
Therefore the LORD himself shall give you a sign; Behold, the virgin is pregnant, and shall bear a son, and people
shall call his name Immanuel.
Butter and honey the people shall eat, that they may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good. 16
For before the boy shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of both her kings.
17 The LORD shall bring upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy father's house, days that have not come, from the day that Ephraim departed from Judah; even the king of Assyria.
18 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the LORD shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria. 19 And they shall come, and shall rest all of them in the desolate valleys, and in the holes of the rocks, and upon all thorns, and upon all bushes. 20 ¶ In the same day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired, namely, by them beyond the river, by the king of Assyria, the head, and the hair of the feet: and it shall also consume the beard.
And it shall come to pass in that day, that a man shall nourish a young cow, and two sheep; 22 And it shall come to pass, for the abundance of milk that they shall give he shall eat butter: for butter and honey shall every one eat that is left in the land.
23 ¶ And it shall come to pass in that day, that every place shall be, where there were a thousand vines at a thousand silverlings, it shall even be for briers and thorns. 24 With arrows and with bows shall men come thither; because all the land shall become briers and thorns. 25 And on all hills that shall be digged with the mattock, there shall not come thither the fear of briers and thorns: but it shall be for the sending forth of oxen, and for the treading of lesser cattle.
KJV Isaiah 8:1
Moreover the LORD said unto me, Take thee a great roll, and write in it with a man's pen concerning Mahershalalhashbaz. 2 And I took unto me faithful witnesses to record, Uriah the priest, and Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah. 3 And I went unto the prophetess; and she conceived, and bare a son. Then said the LORD to me, Call his name Mahershalalhashbaz. 4 For before the boy shall have knowledge to cry, My father, and my mother, the riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria shall be taken away before the king of Assyria.
5 The LORD spake also unto me again, saying,
Forasmuch as this people refuseth the waters of Shiloah that go softly, and rejoice in Rezin and Remaliah's son; 7 Now therefore, behold, the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, even the king of Assyria, and all his glory: and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks: 8 And he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over, he shall reach even to the neck; and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel. 9 Associate yourselves, O ye people, and ye shall be broken in pieces; and give ear, all ye of far countries: gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces; gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces.
Take counsel together, and it shall come to nought; speak the word, and it shall not stand because of Immanuel.
11 ¶ For the LORD spake thus to me with a strong hand, and instructed me that I should not walk in the way of this people, saying, 12 Say ye not, A confederacy, to all them to whom this people shall say, A confederacy; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid. 13 Sanctify the LORD of hosts himself; and let him be your fear, and let him be your dread. 14 And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. 15 And many among them shall stumble, and fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be taken. 16 ¶ Bind up the testimony, seal the law among my disciples. 17 And I will wait upon the LORD, that hideth his face from the house of Jacob, and I will look for him. 18 Behold, I and the children whom the LORD hath given me are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth in mount Zion. 19 And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter: should not a people seek unto their God? for the living to the dead? 20 To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them. 21 And they shall pass through it, hardly bestead and hungry: and it shall come to pass, that when they shall be hungry, they shall fret themselves, and curse their king and their God, and look upward. 22 And they shall look unto the earth; and behold trouble and darkness, dimness of anguish; and they shall be driven to darkness.
For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and people shall call his name Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.
KJV Isaiah 10:21
The remnant shall return (Shearjashub in 7:3
), even the remnant of Jacob, unto the mighty God (El Gibbor in 9:6
KJV Isaiah 5:20
Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!
KJV Nehemiah 3:15
But the gate of the fountain repaired Shallun the son of Colhozeh, the ruler of part of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and the wall of the pool of Siloah
by the king's garden, and unto the stairs that go down from the city of David.
KJV Isaiah 36:2
And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto king Hezekiah with a great army. And he stood by the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field
KJV 2 Kings 18:17 And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem. And when they were come up, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is in the highway of the fuller's field.
KJV Eze 4:4
Lie thou also upon thy left side, and lay the iniquity of the house of Israel upon it: according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon it thou shalt bear their iniquity. 5 For I have laid upon thee the years of their iniquity, according to the number of the days
, three hundred and ninety days
: so shalt thou bear the iniquity of the house of Israel.
9 Take thou also unto thee wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentiles, and millet, and fitches, and put them in one vessel, and make thee bread thereof, according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon thy side, three hundred and ninety days shalt thou eat thereof. 10 And thy meat which thou shalt eat shall be by weight, twenty shekels a day: from time to time shalt thou eat it. 11 Thou shalt drink also water by measure, the sixth part of an hin: from time to time shalt thou drink. 12 And thou shalt eat it as barley cakes, and thou shalt bake it with dung that cometh out of man, in their sight. 13 And the LORD said, Even thus shall the children of Israel eat their defiled bread among the Gentiles, whither I will drive them.
In the 52nd year of Azariah king of Judah Pekah the son of Remaliah began to reign over Israel
in Samaria, and reigned twenty years
16:1 In the seventeenth year of Pekah the son of Remaliah Ahaz the son of Jotham king of Judah began to reign.
17:1 In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years.
6 In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.
KJV 2 Kings 16:5
Then Rezin king of Syria and Pekah son of Remaliah king of Israel came up to Jerusalem to war: and they besieged Ahaz, but could not overcome him. 6 At that time Rezin king of Syria recovered Elath to Syria, and drave the Jews from Elath: and the Syrians came to Elath, and dwelt there unto this day. 7 So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, saying, I am thy servant and thy son: come up, and save me out of the hand of the king of Syria, and out of the hand of the king of Israel, which rise up against me. 8 And Ahaz took the silver and gold that was found in the house of the LORD, and in the treasures of the king's house, and sent it for a present to the king of Assyria. 9 And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him: for the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin.
Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, 23 Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.
For the LORD shall judge his people, and repent himself for his servants, when he seeth that their power is gone
, and there is none shut up, or left.
Isa 23:15 And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king: after the end of seventy years shall Tyre sing as an harlot.
Eze 46:17 But if he give a gift of his inheritance to one of his servants, then it shall be his to the year of liberty; after it shall return to the prince: but his inheritance shall be his sons for them.
Jer 44:23 Because ye have burned incense, and because ye have sinned against the LORD, and have not obeyed the voice of the LORD, nor walked in his law, nor in his statutes, nor in his testimonies; therefore this evil is happened unto you, as at this day.
KJV Genesis 3:15
And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.
Genesis 4:1 And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, "I have paid the price for Jehovah to be a man".
Into death's dust, You've brought Me,
Ps 22:16 because dogs have compassed Me,
in a wicked assembly.
In around Me they have closed.
They have digged My hands and feet.
1 Samuel 17:55-58
And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host, Abner, whose son is this youth
)? And Abner said, As thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell
. 56 And the king said, Enquire thou whose son the stripling (alam) is
. 57 And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand. 58 And Saul said to him, Whose son art thou, thou young man (naar)
? And David answered, I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite.
1 Samuel 20:18-22
Then Jonathan said to David, To morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty. 19 And when thou hast stayed three days, then thou shalt go down quickly, and come to the place where thou didst hide thyself when the business was in hand, and shalt remain by the stone Ezel. 20 And I will shoot three arrows on the side thereof, as though I shot at a mark. 21 And, behold, I will send a lad (naar), saying, Go, find out the arrows. If I expressly say unto the lad (naar), Behold, the arrows are on this side of thee, take them; then come thou: for there is peace to thee, and no hurt; as the LORD liveth. 22 But if I say thus unto the young man (alam),
Behold, the arrows are beyond thee; go thy way: for the LORD hath sent thee away.
DBY Genesis 24:43 behold, I stand by the well of water, and let it come to pass that the damsel (almah)
who cometh forth to draw water, and to whom I shall say, Give me, I pray thee, a little water out of thy pitcher to drink,
DBY Exodus 2:8 And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Go. And the damsel (almah) went and called the child's mother.
DBY Psalm 68:25 The singers went before, the players on stringed instruments after, in the midst of maidens (almoth) playing on tabrets.
There are three things too wonderful
for me, and four that I know not: 19 The way of an eagle in the heavens, the way of a serpent upon a rock, the way of a ship in the heart of the sea, and the way of a mighty man with a maid (almah)
. 20 Such is the way of an adulterous woman: she eateth, and wipeth her mouth, and saith, I have done no wickedness.
DBY Song of Solomon 1:3
Thine ointments savour sweetly; Thy name is an ointment poured forth: Therefore do the virgins (almoth) love thee.
DBY Song of Solomon 6:8
There are threescore queens, and fourscore concubines, And virgins (almoth) without number
The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. Fools despise wisdom and instruction.
8-10 Hear, my son, the instruction of thy father, and forsake not the teaching of thy mother; 9 for they shall be a garland of grace unto thy head, and chains about thy neck. 10 My son, if sinners entice thee, consent not.
32-33 For the turning away of the simple shall slay them, and the prosperity of the foolish shall cause them to perish. 33 But whoso hearkeneth unto me shall dwell safely, and shall be at rest from fear of evil.
KJV Genesis 6:4
There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men
, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
KJV Genesis 16:2 And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai. ... 4 And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived: and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes.
31 And the firstborn said unto the younger, Our father is old, and there is not a man in the earth to come in unto us after the manner of all the earth:
29:21 And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me my wife, for my days are fulfilled, that I may go in unto her. ... 23 And it came to pass in the evening, that he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him; and he went in unto her.
30:3 And she said, Behold my maid Bilhah, go in unto her; and she shall bear upon my knees, that I may also have children by her. 4 And she gave him Bilhah her handmaid to wife: and Jacob went in unto her.
16 And Jacob came out of the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said, Thou must come in unto me; for surely I have hired thee with my son's mandrakes. And he lay with her that night.
38:2 And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite, whose name was Shuah; and he took her, and went in unto her.
8 And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto thy brother's wife, and marry her, and raise up seed to thy brother. 9 And Onan knew that the seed should not be his; and it came to pass, when he went in unto his brother's wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest that he should give seed to his brother.
16 And he turned unto her by the way, and said, Go to, I pray thee, let me come in unto thee; (for he knew not that she was his daughter in law.) And she said, What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto me? ... 18 And he said, What pledge shall I give thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy bracelets, and thy staff that is in thine hand. And he gave it her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him.
39:14 That she called unto the men of her house, and spake unto them, saying, See, he hath brought in an Hebrew unto us to mock us; he came in unto me to lie with me, and I cried with a loud voice: ... 17 And she spake unto him according to these words, saying, The Hebrew servant, which thou hast brought unto us, came in unto me to mock me:
Deuteronomy 21:13 And she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thine house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month: and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife.
22:13 If any man take a wife, and go in unto her, and hate her,
25:5 If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband's brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of an husband's brother unto her.
KJV Joshua 23:12 Else if ye do in any wise go back, and cleave unto the remnant of these nations, even these that remain among you, and shall make marriages with them, and go in unto them, and they to you:
KJV Judges 16:1 Then went Samson to Gaza, and saw there an harlot, and went in unto her.
KJV Ruth 4:13 So Boaz took Ruth, and she was his wife: and when he went in unto her, the LORD gave her conception, and she bare a son.
KJV 2 Samuel 3:7 And Saul had a concubine, whose name was Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah: and Ishbosheth said to Abner, Wherefore hast thou gone in unto my father's concubine?
11:4 And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in unto him, and he lay with her; for she was purified from her uncleanness: and she returned unto her house.
12:24 And David comforted Bathsheba his wife, and went in unto her, and lay with her: and she bare a son, and he called his name Solomon: and the LORD loved him.
KJV 2 Samuel 16:21 And Ahithophel said unto Absalom, Go in unto thy father's concubines, which he hath left to keep the house; and all Israel shall hear that thou art abhorred of thy father: then shall the hands of all that are with thee be strong. 22 So they spread Absalom a tent upon the top of the house; and Absalom went in unto his father's concubines in the sight of all Israel.
20:3 And David came to his house at Jerusalem; and the king took the ten women his concubines, whom he had left to keep the house, and put them in ward, and fed them, but went not in unto them. So they were shut up unto the day of their death, living in widowhood.
KJV 1 Kings 11:2 Of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall not go in to them, neither shall they come in unto you: for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods: Solomon clave unto these in love.
KJV Ezekiel 23:44 Yet they went in unto her, as they go in unto a woman that playeth the harlot: so went they in unto Aholah and unto Aholibah, the lewd women.
KJV Amos 2:7 That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor, and turn aside the way of the meek: and a man and his father will go in unto the same maid, to profane my holy name:
KJV Genesis 29:18
And Jacob loved Rachel; and said, I will serve thee seven years for Rachel
thy younger daughter. ... 20 And Jacob served seven years for Rachel
; and they seemed unto him but a few days, for the love he had to her. ... 25 And it came to pass, that in the morning, behold, it was Leah: and he said to Laban, What is this thou hast done unto me? did not I serve with thee for Rachel
? wherefore then hast thou beguiled me?
30:2 And Jacob's anger was kindled against Rachel: and he said, Am I in God's stead, who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb?
KJV Deuteronomy 28:54 So that the man that is tender among you, and very delicate, his eye shall be evil toward his brother, and toward the wife of his bosom, and toward the remnant of his children which he shall leave:
KJV Hosea 12:12 And Jacob fled into the country of Syria, and Israel served for a wife, and for a wife he kept sheep.
KJV Malachi 2:15 And did not he make one? Yet had he the residue of the spirit. And wherefore one? That he might seek a godly seed. Therefore take heed to your spirit, and let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth.
KJV Genesis 2:24
Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife
: and they shall be one flesh.
And his soul clave unto Dinah
the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spake kindly unto the damsel. .. 8 And Hamor communed with them, saying, The soul
of my son Shechem longeth for your daughter
: I pray you give her him to wife. ... 19 And the young man deferred not to do the thing, because he had delight in Jacob's daughter
: and he was more honourable than all the house of his father.
KJV Micah 5:2
But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting
John 1:1-4 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 The same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. 4 In him was life; and the life was the light of men. ... 14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
John 3:13 No one has gone up to heaven except the one who has come down from heaven, the Son of Man.
Philippians 2:5-8 5 Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: 6 Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: 7 But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: 8 And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.
And just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so must the Son of Man be lifted up,
15 so that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life."
John 12:31-33 31 Now is the time of judgment on this world; now the ruler of this world will be driven out. 32 And when I am lifted up from the earth, I will draw everyone to myself." 33 He said this indicating the kind of death he would die.
Romans 8:2-4 2 For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus has freed you from the law of sin and death. 3 For what the law, weakened by the flesh, was powerless to do, this God has done: by sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for the sake of sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, 4 so that the righteous decree of the law might be fulfilled in us, who live not according to the flesh but according to the spirit.
2 Corinthians 5:21 21 For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.
That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us
: 19 Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul,
both sure and stedfast, and which entereth into that within the veil; 20 Whither the forerunner is for us entered, even Jesus, made an high priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.
John 17:11-18 And now I will no longer be in the world, but they are in the world, while I am coming to you. Holy Father, keep them in your name that you have given me, so that they may be one just as we are. 12 When I was with them I protected them in your name that you gave me, and I guarded them, and none of them was lost except the son of destruction, in order that the scripture might be fulfilled. 13 But now I am coming to you. I speak this in the world so that they may share my joy completely. 14 I gave them your word, and the world hated them, because they do not belong to the world any more than I belong to the world. 15 I do not ask that you take them out of the world but that you keep them from the evil one. 16 They do not belong to the world any more than I belong to the world. 17 Consecrate them in the truth. Your word is truth. 18 As you sent me into the world, so I sent them into the world.
Ephesians 4:14-15 14 That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive; 15 But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ:
Hebrews 11:7 By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house; by the which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith.
1 Peter 3:20-22 20 Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water. 21 The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ: 22 Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him.
John 6:15-21 Since Jesus knew that they were going to come and carry him off to make him king, he withdrew again to the mountain alone. 16 When it was evening, his disciples went down to the sea, 17 embarked in a boat, and went across the sea to Capernaum. It had already grown dark, and Jesus had not yet come to them. 18 The sea was stirred up because a strong wind was blowing. 19 When they had rowed about three or four miles, they saw Jesus walking on the sea and coming near the boat, and they began to be afraid. 20 But he said to them, "It is I. Do not be afraid." 21 They wanted to take him into the boat, but the boat immediately arrived at the shore to which they were heading.
Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord. 23 For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body. 24 Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing. 25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it; 26 That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word, 27 That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 28 So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself. 29 For no man ever yet hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the church: 30 For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones. 31 For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh.
32 This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church
. 33 Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband.
2 Corinthians 11:2-3 2 For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ. 3 But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ.
John 3:29 He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled.
Revelation 19:7-9 7 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready. 8 And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. 9 And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.
21:2 And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.
9-10 And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb's wife. 10 And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God,
22:17 And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.
Yet I hold this against you, that you tolerate the woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess, who teaches and misleads my servants to play the harlot and to eat food sacrificed to idols
. 21 I have given her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her harlotry
. 22 So I will cast her on a sickbed and plunge those who commit adultery with her into intense suffering unless they repent of her works. 23 I will also put her children to death. Thus shall all the churches come to know that I am the searcher of hearts and minds and that I will give each of you what your works deserve. 24 But I say to the rest of you in Thyatira, who do not uphold this teaching and know nothing of the so-called deep secrets of Satan: on you I will place no further burden, 25 except that you must hold fast to what you have until I come.
Revelation 17:1-6 Then one of the seven angels who were holding the seven bowls came and said to me, "Come here. I will show you the judgment on the great harlot who lives near the many waters. 2 The kings of the earth have had intercourse with her, and the inhabitants of the earth became drunk on the wine of her harlotry." 3 Then he carried me away in spirit to a deserted place where I saw a woman seated on a scarlet beast that was covered with blasphemous names, with seven heads and ten horns. 4 The woman was wearing purple and scarlet and adorned with gold, precious stones, and pearls. She held in her hand a gold cup that was filled with the abominable and sordid deeds of her harlotry. 5 On her forehead was written a name, which is a mystery, "Babylon the great, the mother of harlots and of the abominations of the earth." 6 I saw that the woman was drunk on the blood of the saints and on the blood of the witnesses to Jesus. When I saw her I was greatly amazed.
19:2-3 for true and just are his judgments. He has condemned the great harlot who corrupted the earth with her harlotry. He has avenged on her the blood of his servants." 3 They said a second time: "Alleluia! Smoke will rise from her forever and ever."
KJV Genesis 34:12
Ask me never so much dowry and gift, and I will give according as ye shall say unto me: but give me the damsel
And give occasions of speech against her, and bring up an evil name upon her, and say, I took this woman, and when I came to her, I found her not a maid (betulim)
: 15 Then shall the father of the damsel
, and her mother, take and bring forth the tokens of the damsel's virginity (betulim)
unto the elders of the city in the gate: 16 And the damsel's father
shall say unto the elders, I gave my daughter unto this man to wife, and he hateth her; 17 And, lo, he hath given occasions of speech against her, saying, I found not thy daughter a maid (betulim);
and yet these are the tokens of my daughter's virginity (betulim)
. And they shall spread the cloth before the elders of the city. 18 And the elders of that city shall take that man and chastise him; 19
And they shall amerce him in an hundred shekels of silver, and give them unto the father of the damsel
, because he hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin (betulah) of Israel
: and she shall be his wife; he may not put her away all his days. 20 But if this thing be true, and the tokens of virginity (betulim)
be not found for the damsel:
KJV And it came to pass in those days, when there was no king in Israel, that there was a certain Levite sojourning on the side of mount Ephraim, who took to him a concubine out of Bethlehemjudah. 2 And his concubine played the whore against him, and went away from him unto her father's house to Bethlehemjudah, and was there four whole months. 3 And her husband arose, and went after her, to speak friendly unto her, and to bring her again, having his servant with him, and a couple of asses: and she brought him into her father's house: and when the father of the damsel
saw him, he rejoiced to meet him. 4 And his father in law, the damsel's father
, retained him; and he abode with him three days: so they did eat and drink, and lodged there.
Then said Boaz unto his servant that was set over the reapers, Whose damsel
is this? 6 And the servant that was set over the reapers answered and said, It is the Moabitish damsel
that came back with Naomi out of the country of Moab:
KJV Joel 1:8
Lament like a virgin
girded with sackcloth for the husband of her youth.
Esther 2:15-19 Now when the turn of Esther, the daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai, who had taken her for his daughter, was come to go in unto the king, she required nothing but what Hegai the king's chamberlain, the keeper of the women, appointed. And Esther obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her. 16 So Esther was taken unto king Ahasuerus into his house royal in the tenth month, which is the month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign. 17 And the king loved Esther above all the women, and she obtained grace and favour in his sight more than all the virgins; so that he set the royal crown upon her head, and made her queen instead of Vashti. 18 Then the king made a great feast unto all his princes and his servants, even Esther's feast; and he made a release to the provinces, and gave gifts, according to the state of the king. 19 And when the virgins were gathered together the second time, then Mordecai sat in the king's gate.
KJV Malachi 2:15
And did not he make one? Yet had he the residue of the spirit. And wherefore one? That he might seek a godly seed. Therefore take heed to your spirit, and let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth.
KJV Deuteronomy 21:13
And she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thine house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month: and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife
And the damsel was very fair to look upon, a virgin, and neither had any man known her
: and she went down to the well, and filled her pitcher, and came up.
Exodus 22:16-17 16 And if a man entice a maid that had not been betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife. 17 If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.
Leviticus 21:3 And for his sister a virgin, that is nigh unto him, which hath had no husband; for her may he be defiled.
If a damsel that is a virgin
be betrothed unto an husband, and a man find her in the city, and lie with her;
Deuteronomy 22:28 If a man find a damsel that is a virgin, which is not betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be found;
KJV Judges 21:12
And they found among the inhabitants of Jabeshgilead four hundred young virgins, that had known no man by lying with any male:
and they brought them unto the camp to Shiloh, which is in the land of Canaan.
KJV 1 Kings 1:2 Wherefore his servants said unto him, Let there be sought for my lord the king a young virgin: and let her stand before the king, and let her cherish him, and let her lie in thy bosom, that my lord the king may get heat.
KJV Esther 2:2-3 Then said the king's servants that ministered unto him, Let there be fair young virgins sought for the king: 3 And let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair young virgins unto Shushan the palace, to the house of the women, unto the custody of Hege the king's chamberlain, keeper of the women; and let their things for purification be given them:
KJV Leviticus 21:13-14
And he shall take a wife in her virginity
. 14 A widow, or a divorced woman, or profane, or an harlot, these shall he not take: but he shall take a virgin of his own people to wife
KJV Ezekiel 44:22 Neither shall they take for their wives a widow, nor her that is put away: but they shall take maidens (betulot) of the seed of the house of Israel, or a widow that had a priest before.
1 Corinthians 3:2
I have fed you with milk, and not with meat: for hitherto ye were not able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able.
Hebrews 5:12 For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. 13 For every one that useth milk is unskilful in the word of righteousness: for he is a babe.
1 Peter 2:2 As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby:
Exodus 3:8 And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.
16:31 And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.
Psalm 19:7-10 7 The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.
Psalm 119:103 How sweet are thy words unto my taste! yea, sweeter than honey to my mouth!
Proverbs 16:24 Pleasant words are as an honeycomb, sweet to the soul, and health to the bones.
24:13-14 My son, eat thou honey, because it is good; and the honeycomb, which is sweet to thy taste: 14 So shall the knowledge of wisdom be unto thy soul: when thou hast found it, then there shall be a reward, and thy expectation shall not be cut off.
27:7 The full soul loatheth an honeycomb; but to the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweet.
Song of Solomon 2:3 As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons. I sat down under his shadow with great delight, and his fruit was sweet to my taste.
Song of Solomon 5:16 His mouth is most sweet: yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.
2Ki 15:30 And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah.
2Ki 16:9 And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him: for the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin.
The background - Jerusalem attacked by Israel with Syria vv 1 - 2
The northern 10 tribes called "Israel" joined forces with the gentile kingdom of Syria to attack Jerusalem, which was the capital of the kingdom of Judah. This was terrible. Judah was not strong enough to defend against these 2 kingdoms joined together.
Their hearts wavered this way and that, not knowing what to do.
The LORD sends Isaiah to meet Ahaz vv 3 - 6
Why did God tell Isaiah to bring Shearjashub his son? The main reason is because his name means "a remnant will return (or turn)". A remnant will return from where and to what? There is no illusion to the Babylonian captivity in this passage (chs 7-10). The remnant must be those who believe in Immanuel and thus return to God (10:21
). This fortells that most of Israel will not accept the message that Isaiah is delivering. The message is that Immanuel will come.
Another reason for Shearjashub being there is to add the gentleness (8:6
) of the message of Immanuel. The waters of Shiloah that flow gently in 8:6, which the people refused, are the very waters here at the conduit of the upper pool (Neh 3:15
) (B. Newton). The gentle waters of Shiloah, which means "the sent", signify Immanuel, the Sent One. This will be covered more when we get to 8:6.
The meeting place of Isaiah, Shearjashub and Ahaz is the exact same meeting place, described with the same words even, as where Rabshakeh, sent from the king of Assyria, spoke to Hezekiah, blaspheming God (Isa 36:2; 2 Kg 18:17
). I think this caused Hezekiah to remember the prophecy of Immanuel by Isaiah in the very same place, and strengthened Hezekiah to trust in the Lord.
The Hebrew word for "pool" is bracha, which also means "blessing". The Hebrew word for "upper" is alyon, which also means "Most High". The conduit is a channel, and a "fuller" is someone who washes clothes. All these same exact words are used in Isa 36:2 & 2 Kg 18:17
, so they must be significant. F. C. Jennings has rich sharing on this
The Lord has such low regard for Pekah king of Israel that He refuses to say his name, but calls him the son of Remaliah.
Tabel means either "good for nothing". The person naming him may have intended for the name to mean "good is God", but in Hebrew the adjective comes after the word modified. This person, like the son of Remaliah, was so despised by God that He would not say his name, but called him the son of Tabeal.
The Lord's promise to deliver vv 7-9
- Ephraim was the leading tribe of the northern kingdom of Israel, the location of the capital and the tribe of at least their first kings. Ephraim thought they were smart to join with a gentile king against Judah, but soon they would no longer be a people.
This is a judgment on Ephraim, but not an answer to Judah's dilemma because 65 years is too long to wait when you are in an emergency.
65 years - This was the 1st, 2nd or 3rd yr of Ahaz. It could not have been earlier because Ahaz was King. It could not have been later than the 3rd yr of Ahaz because Pekah was still king (2Ki 15:27; 16:1
). So at most there would be 21 years till the captivity of the northern 10 tribes: 3 yrs of Pekah, 9 years of no king, 9 years of Hoshea (2Ki 17:1
,6). That means Ephraim remained as a people approx. 45 years into captivity, but then were no more a people. I think this means that after ~45 years of captivity, the distinction of Ephraim from the other 9 captive tribes was lost.
This differs from Ezekielís 390 years (Eze 4:4-5,9-13
). The 390 yrs is the time that the northern kingdom ate small amounts of good food mixed with generous parts of human dung. This began with Jereboam mixing a little bit of the Torah with a lot of man-made religion and ended when Judah went into captivity to join them, at which time those who had not assimilated to be gentiles became part of Judah.
- The Lord tells all His people ("you" is plural) that the way for them to be established is to have faith.
Ahaz Refuses to Ask for a Sign vv 10 - 13
- Ahaz was newly king. God wanted to give him a chance to strengthen his faith.
- Ahaz did not want a sign because he did not want to trust in God. He was already planning to pay the king of Assyria to attack Israel and Syria (2Ki 16:5-9
- Ahaz knows he is lying to manís face. You also do this to God?
The previous words of the Lord thru Isaiah were rehearsed. The Lord told Isaiah to speak these words to Ahaz. Now with v13, the Lord is speaking instantly thru Isaiah.
The Promise of Immanuel v14
- There is much to say on this verse, so I have organized it as follows so you can skip the parts you are not interested in.
Translations of Isaiah 7:14 from the Masoretic Hebrew Text (MT), which is the text accepted by most Jews, use the definite pronoun "she", meaning that Immanuel's mother would call her child's name Immanuel. But Matthew 1:23
uses the indefinite pronoun, "they", which means that many unspecified individuals would call his name Immanuel. This may seem like picking hairs, but it is not. Every word of the Bible must fit an interpretation just like a piece of a jigsaw puzzle. I am glad that Rabbi Tovia Singer pointed this out in his counter-missionary tapes, because it is the right way to read the Bible, and also because it gives me the ground to judge his explanations using the same criteria. Singer claims that Matthew had a very poor understanding of Hebrew and that Matthew shamelessly changed the text. Singer says that there is a big difference between the mother calling his name Immanuel and many unspecified individuals calling his name Immanuel. For the mother to name him Immanuel is a normal naming of a child. She most likely named him Immanuel because she realized that God is with us, the Jewish people, at that time. However, according to Singer, Matthew, shamelessly changed the verse to say, "they shall call". The statement, "They shall call His name Immanuel", means not that Immanuel is His actual name, but that is what many unspecified individuals will know Him to be. The child to be born really is "God with us".
This is not a problem of translation, but a problem in the MT text. There used to be a number of manuscripts of the Old Testament text with minor variations. Just like today there are several thousand manuscripts of the New Testament text. Around the year 200 A.D. the Jews held a council and decided on one version of the Hebrew Text, which became the Masoretic Text. The other variants were lost.
Now, just since ~1999, the text of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) has been made public. This is a text of the Old Testament from ~100 B.C. The earliest copies we have from the MT are from 800+ A.D. Scholars thought that it would be impossible for the DSS to match the MT, being that there are 1000 years between them. The amazing thing is that almost every word matched from the DSS to the MT. Almost the only difference was in the spelling of some words. The DSS contains a perfectly preserved copy of the book of Isaiah, and some other copies of Isaiah as well. What does the DSS say for Isaiah 7:14? The DSS says literally, "he shall call", 3rd person indefinite, which DSS translators translated as "his name shall be called", which is better English, but loses some of the meaning. The best translation, which preserves that it is many unspecified individuals who call His name Immanuel, is Matthew's which says, "they shall call his name Immanuel."
I translated the indefinite pronoun "they" as "people" because the next verse continues the use of the indefinite pronoun, and if I used "they", then the "they" in v14 would be the antecedant of "they" in v15, which is not required.
The MT actually does not say, "she shall call", but says "you (fem singular) shall call", which does not make sense because there is no woman there. Because this does not make sense, all translators of the MT translate it as "she shall call", which is actually to consider that the MT text is in error.
The Septuagint (LXX) which was a Jewish translation of the Old Testament into Greek done in ~100 B.C. says, "Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and you
(singular) shall call his name Immanuel. This shows that the LXX translated from the same Hebrew text as the MT today, so this error in the MT did not come in due to anti-Christian bias. I think the error came in due to a bias to protect the divinity of God. How could a human child actually be "God with us"? However the Bible is written redundantly so that there are 2 or 3 witnesses to anything important. Everything in Isa 7:14-16 is repeated in more detail later in this same prophecy. Isa 9:6
tells us that this same child is the mighty God and the Father of eternity.
The virgin bearing a son is not the sign to Ahaz. It is the reason that the Lord will preserve Judah (Isa 8:10
). The Lord must preserve Judah so that the virgin will be able to bring forth a son. The sign is the next verse.
This cannot be a double prophecy. "The virgin is pregnant" means that she is pregnant while in the state of virginity.
The word LORD is Adonai in the MT (Masoretic Hebrew Text) and Jehovah in DSS (Dead Sea Scrolls). I think the DSS is correct because the MT scribes were used to vocalizing Jehovah as Adonai, so they could make this mistake.
Virgin has the definite article "the" because it is a particular woman who has been prophesied before in Gen 3:15 & 4:1
. Matthew 1:23
also used the definite article in Greek.
usage of almah in Old Testament
Rabbi Singer's most important argument is that the Hebrew word here translated "virgin" does not mean "virgin", but just "young woman, married or unmarried". The Hebrew word is almah
. Singer starts by giving a supposedly gross example of Christian mistranslation of the Old Testament (Ps 22:16
), and says that this is a basic principle of Christians showing Christ in the Old Testament. This prepares the biblically ignorant listener to believe that almah
is mistranslated without looking too carefully at Singer's argument regarding almah
. Then Singer says, Now let us look at another favorite verse of Christians, Isaiah 7:14. "Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel." There's only one problem here. The word that is translated "virgin" here is never translated as "virgin" anywhere else. (audience laughs).
almah in Song of Songs
First off, Mr. Singer, apparently misspoke on purpose. His statement, "The word that is translated 'virgin' here is never translated as 'virgin' anywhere else" is wrong. I do not know of any translation that translated almah
in Isaiah 7:14 as 'virgin', but did not translate it as 'virgin' in other places, especially in Song of Songs
. Certainly not the King James Version, which Singer quoted. In fact, the opposite is true: the top rabbi Rashi (~1000 A.D.) translated almah
as virgin in Song of Songs
in the Old Testament, but translated it as "young woman" in Isaiah 7:14 because he had an anti-Christian bias. Try substituting "young women" for "virgins" in Song of Songs 1:3 & 6:8
. It doesn't work. It would be promoting the immorality of rock stars. The Stone Tanach Orthodox Jewish translation (1998) says that the almoth
means "maidens" in the Song of Songs verses. "Maiden" means a woman who had not married. The almoth
in Song of Songs 6:8
are not married to the king because then they would be included in the "queens" and "concubines".
I have listed all the occurances of almah
in the Old Testament. We know that the 1st instance, Rebekah in Gen 24:43 was a virgin, and we understand that the 2nd instance, Miriam was in Exo 2:8. "Virgin" works for all the other occurances.
Singer and others claim that the almah
in Prov 30:19
refers to the adulterous woman in v20 in the act of fornication. This is horrible. The adulterous woman in v20 is in contrast to the almah
in v19, as is the case very often in Proverbs
. The adulterous woman has no feeling, or rather pretends to have none, in complete contrast with the tender feeling of mighty man courting a virgin. The words in v18 "I know not" correspond to the word almah
whose root means "unknown". "Wonderful" means "beyond human understanding", "marvelous". Adultery is not wonderful but the courting of a virgin by a mighty man is.
A commonly used Jewish exposition of Prov 30:18-20
is to ask, What is in common with these 4 wonders? The exposition says that the wonderful thing about all 4 is that they do not leave a trace. This is nonsense. There is no need to say that all 4 things must be wonderful in the same way; not leaving a trace is not wonderful; and adultery leaves traces. The common thing is that they are all wonderful, and probably are symbolic also.
(I think the 4 wonders are symbolic of the 4 stages of the Messiah: The eagle in the air is symbolic of Christ before incarnation (Mic 5:2; etc
). The serpent on the rock is Christ incarnated in the form of sinful man, but without sin (Jn 3:14-15; etc
). The way of a ship in the sea, is the resurrected Christ as a refuge to the church in the world (Heb 6:18-20; etc
). The way of a mighty man with a virgin is Christ's marriage to the church at His 2nd coming and thereafter (Eph 5:22-33; etc
). The unrepentant adulterous woman in v20 is the apostate church (Rev 2:20-25;etc)
judged at Christ's 2nd coming. This is not necessary to the argument about almah
Another terrible argument notes that the end of v19 literally says "the way of a mighty man in
" and expounds that the prepostion "in" refers to the physical intimate union of the man with the almah
. This gross misunderstanding may be because English translations translate the common Hebrew euphemism as "go in unto", but in Hebrew it just says "go to". The preposition used is el
, "to" without the preposition "in" (Gen 6:4; etc
). The preposition "in" is used often for the relationship between a man and woman, but rarely, if ever, for the physical relationship (Deu 28:54; etc
). Verses where "in" might be used for the physical are Gen 2:24 & 34:3
, but these do not refer to the physical relationship but the cleaving together of the souls as stated in Gen 34:3 . Even if it does refer to the physical relationship in Gen 2:24
, it is only with the verb "cleave" and would hardly infer that Prov 30:19 does.
Words close in meaning
male form - alam
There are 3 Hebrew words which could mean "virgin". Almah,
which is used here,
means an innocent young unmarried woman, from its usage throughout the Tanach and from its root meaning "unknown". The male form, alam,
is an unknown or innocent young unmarried man. The word is only used twice. It's 1st usage is 1 Sam 17:56
, where the emphasis on David being unknown. The other usage is 1 Sam 20:22
, where the point is that the alam
is innocent as to what is taking place.
naarah - young unmarried woman
is a young unmarried woman, but not necessarily, a virgin. The male form, naar,
is a male youth, in age anywhere from an infant to just before marriage, equivalent to the English, "boy". It is used of Dinah after she had been raped (Gen 34:12
) and of the widow Ruth (Ruth 2:5-6
). It is not used of a married woman except in the case of a concubine who had left her husband (Jud 19:3-4
) and of a woman who was just married, whose husband was trying to annul the marriage (Deu 22:15-16
). If naarah
were used in Isa 7:14, it would imply immorality.
, for which there is no masculine counterpart, is a woman virtuous in her relationship to men, whether an unmarried virgin or a wife of 1 husband from her virginity, not necessarily young. Joel 1:8; Es 2:17,19
; Deu 22:19
are instances where betulah refers to married women. In Joel 1:8, the betulah has "the husband of her youth", which is similar to the phrase "wife of his youth" in Mal 2:15
. They have been married since their youth. Also the Hebrew word for "husband" here is baal
, which never means "betrothed", but husband, as in Deut 21:13
, where the betrothed does not become a husband until after the marriage is consumated.
is used to definately mean a virgin, additional words are added to make it clear that the the betulah
is unmarried (Gen 24:16; etc
). In Gen 24:16
, it says that Rebekah was a betulah and
no man had known her. The "and" means that "no man had known her" is something additional to her being a betulah
. The KJV term "damsel that is a virgin" in Deu 22:23,28
is the same in Hebrew as that translated "young virgin(s)" in Jd 21:12; 1 Ki 1:2 & Est 2:2-3
. The Hebrew actually says naarah betulah
. The meaning "young virgin" does not work in Deu 22:23 & 28
because the penalty should be the same whether the virgin was young or not, and if the meaning was "young", "young" would need to be defined. The meaning of naarah betulah
is "unmarried betulah
". This is almost the same as our English word "virgin", but could include a widowed betulah
. If naarah betulah
had been used in Isa 7:14, then the meaning could be that the father died before the child was born. If just betulah
were used in Isa 7:14, it would be a normal birth.
The related word betulim
, which is the masculine plural of betulah
, means virginity (Lev 21:13
;. Deu 22:14-15,17,20
). This does not require that betulah
means a virgin, but that the meaning is related to it.
The Sign: Butter and honey people shall eat v15-16
- This is the sign to Ahaz.
Literally, "Butter and honey he shall eat that he may know ..". "He" will eat butter and honey for the purpose that "he" may know to refuse the evil and choose the good. Why would eating butter and honey enable the child to refuse evil and choose good? I believe the answer is that "he" does not refer back to Immanuel, but to "people" (or "they") in "people shall call" in v14 according to DSS and Matthew 1:23. The "he" in v15, and the "people" in v14 are both 3ms, because in Hebrew that is used as the indefinite pronoun.
V15 should be translated, continuing the subject of the last phrase of v14 according to DSS: Butter & honey the people shall eat that they may know to refuse the evil and choose the good. "People" is the indefinite pronoun ("he" in Hebrew), and refers to the people of Judah in general as proven by 7:21-22
. They would be purified by this simple diet as the new generation of Israelites was by the diet of manna in the wilderness. The reason the word "butter" or "curds" is used instead of milk is that milk and honey do not mix well. But honey mixes wonderfully with yogurt or butter. This is something the people will really eat. It is not just figurative. Hezekiah may have been prepared by this simple diet. Hezekiah may have learned to be simple to refuse evil and choose good through this time of discipline, during which he was just the right age to learn. In Isa 5:20
, the Lord rebuked the people for saying the sweet was bitter and the bitter sweet. The simplicity promised in this verse is in contrast to Ahazís hypocricy (v12-13
). Also see 8:6
, where the people in general refuse (same word as in this verse) the waters of Shiloah and rejoice in Rezin and Remaliahís son.
- The meaning of the phrase "know to refuse the evil and choose the good" means something different in this verse than in the previous. In this verse, it refers to a little child reaching an age where he knows to refuse the evil and choose the good, which has nothing to do with eating butter and honey. It is common and normal, and happens with all normal boys when they reach age 2-3. In v15, "to know to refuse the evil and choose the good" refers to restoring the spiritual taste to the people in general.
I believe that the boy here, hanaar
, is Mahershalahashbaz (8:1-4
) who is called hanaar
, "the boy," in 8:4
. Many say the boy here is ShearJashub, Isaiahís son who was with him (7:3
). I cannot find a parallel where a definite articled noun would refer back to someone mentioned 12 verses ago rather than the son mentioned 2 verses ago. (I only looked up all occurances of hanaar
.) If it was refering to Shearjashub, who was there, I think it should say "this boy" rather than just "the boy". Also, we don't know how old Shearjashub is, but the boy here must be a newborn. Referring forward to 8:1
(9 verses) is also unusual. but this is a prophecy, so it can refer to someone coming. "The virgin" does not refer to anyone who was there, but to a particular virgin who was to come, but who had been mentioned before as "the woman" in Gen 3:15
Reasons why hanaar refers to Mahershalalhashbaz rather than Shearjashub:
1. Since Shearjashub was there, referring to him would be better with the demonstrative pronoun, "this" then the definate article "the".
2. Mahershalalhasbaz is called hanaar
is the explanation of this verse, just as 7:21-22
is an explanation of 7:15
4. The boy must be just born for the timing to work. If it was Shearjashub, then then we should be told how old Shearjashub is. If Shearjashub was just born, then Isaiah's wife could not have another child so soon.
In the 3rd year of Ahaz, Pekah, son of Remaliah was killed and there followed 9 years of anarchy in Israel with no king. (2 Kg 15:30). Before this the king of Assyria took Damascus & slew Rezin (2 Kg 16:9).
The verse starts with "For". This verse gives the enabler for v14. If the confederacy of Syria with Ephraim were allowed to succeed, then the prophecies of the Messiah to be born could not be fulfilled.
Calvin and Benjamin Newton say "before the lad shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good" means that before anyone who at that time is a lad shall know to refuse the evil etc, the 2 kings would be gone. This interpretation is definately wrong. The Hebrew word, naar, usually means a young man, but can have the general meaning of "boy" which can refer to a boy from the age of infant to before marriage. A naar would generally already be of age to refuse the evil and choose the good. So this cannot refer to a "naar" in general.