Psalm 82 - God stands in the assembly of God
v1 -"God standing in the assembly of God" refers to God incarnated in Christ standing in the temple among the leaders of God's people on earth.  If God was judging in the heavens, He would be sitting, not standing. The word "stand" here is not the usual word "amad" but "natsab" in passive form. It means God was appointed to stand in the assembly of God.
"Within" is literally "in the inward parts of". Christ is judging in the congregation of God, judging within the inward parts of the gods.
v2-4 -These 3 verses tell what the God in verse 1 is judging in the assembly of God within the gods.
This was the message of almost every prophet and of Jesus also.
Jesus rebuked the Jewish leaders for this (i.e. Matt 23:23; Mark 12:40), but much more, He did these righteous deeds Himself (i.e. Luke 7:12-15). Even more, by His death and resurrection, He saves us out of the hand of the wicked one, Satan.
v5 -This was the Jewish rulers' reaction to Jesus ministry, especially in John, where the next verse of this Psalm is quoted. They walk on in darkness thinking that they know and discern, but do not. (John 9:39-41; 12:35-40,46; 1:9-11; 3:19-21; 8:12;  Matt 6:21-24; 15:14; 23:16-26;  Lk 11:34-35; 22:53; 2 Cor 4:4;  Eph 6:12; 1 Jn 2:8-11; Rev 3:17)

All the foundations of the earth are moved. This happened at Christ's crucifixion and resurrection (Matt 27:50-54; 28:1-2). The Jewish rulers did not discern what a huge event this was (Matt 16:1-3; Lk 12:56-57; 19:42-44). This was the change from the Old Covenant to the New (Heb 7:12, 18-19; 8:6-13).
v6 - The 1st 1/2 of this verse is to the Jewish rulers, "I, even I had said, You are gods". He had called them gods in 82:1, and probably in Exo 21:6; 22:8-9, 28.
God called the Jewish leaders gods to let them know the seriousness of their responsibility.

The Lord only quoted the 1st 1/2 of this verse in John 10:34. This indicates that only this 1st part pertained to the Jewish rulers. Jesus did not quote the 2nd 1/2 of the verse because it did not apply to them, even though it made Jesus' point even better.

The 2nd part of the verse is the New Testament dispensation. Through Jesus's death and resurrection everyone in the assembly of God becomes a son of the Most High, sharing God's life and nature as Jesus' brother (Jn 1:12-13; Heb 2:11-12; 2 Pet 1:3-4). To be a son of the Most High is much higher than to be a "god". To be a "god" here is to represent God with His authority (Exo 4:16; 7:1) as angels do (Ps 8:5; Heb 2:7).

In the Old Testament it was not "all of you" but only the rulers. In the NT it is all God's people who are sons of God (Heb 8:11) .

This is what Jesus speaks in the New Testament in the assembly of God.
v7 - This indicates that the previous verse is about the Jewish rulers. The Lord was offering them eternal life in John 10, but they rejected it. (John 8:24)

To "fall" is to die a violent death. Though you live as a prince, you will fall as a prince, which is no better than falling as a poor man. Actually it is much worse because the higher you are the harder you fall. (Luke 19:44)
v8 - This Psalm ends with a Prayer for God to arise and judge the earth. "God" here, must be the same God as in verse 1, God incarnated as Christ. This is a prayer for Christ's coming. "God arise" may be a prayer for Christ's resurrection at His 1st coming. "God judge the earth" is a prayer for His 2nd coming. In the view of the Old Testament, Christ's 1st and 2nd coming are viewed to be at the same time without the knowledge of the big time gap between them.

I like that this prayer gives God the reason that God should arise and judge the earth: that He will inherit all the nations. God will get what He wants. We should pray similarly for Jesus to come quickly in His 2nd coming. This prayer tells God what's in it for Him.

Through Jesus' death and resurrection, the New Covenant is opened to all the nations, not the Jews only (Zech 11:10; Ps 2:7-8;  Eph 1:11-18; 3:3-6). It is a great thing for God to inherit the nations. In the Old Testament, the nations had a place, but only the Jewish people were to be God's inheritance. These nations are the New Testament believers. This is covered more in my exposition of Psalm 2:7-8.

All the nations includes Israelites.

-copyright Steve Miller 8/22/2009