Deuteronomy 32 - The Song of Moses

I. Introduction vv 1-6
a. Attention vv 1-2
b. Summary vv 4-5
c. Consider v6
II. Preciousness of Israel to God vv 7-12
III. Jacob's prosperity vv 13-15a
IV. The problem: Jacob gave up God vv 15b-18
V. God's response vv 19-27
VI. God's lament vv 28-33
VII. The Lord's vengence on Israel's enemies vv 34-43b
VIII. Atonement for Israel v 43c

Background (Deut 31:19-30):
31:19 "Put it in their mouths" so they can recite it without thinking.
31:21 "it will not be forgotten in the mouths of their descendants" - As a nominal orthodox Jew, I did not know this song even existed. It seems that this song has been forgotten by today's Jews. Perhaps, just before the end of the age, the 2 witnesses, Moses and Elijah will restore this song into the mouths of the Jewish people (Matt 17:10-11; Rev 11:3-6).
31:22 The song was written by Moses under the inspiration of the Spirit. God did not dictate the song to Moses, as is evident from the content (i.e. v4) and the  pronouns used (i.e. v3).
31:23 It is strange that this verse switches the "he" to refer to the Lord rather than Moses. LXX ends the verse with "which the Lord swore to them, and He will be with you." SP agrees with MT. DSS does not preserve this verse.
31:28-29 This is a summary of the song to follow.

The Song of Moses

This song is called the Song of Moses by Jews and Christians, but is not clearly designated so in the Bible. In Revelation 15, those who overcome the beast will sing "the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb".
Is the song of Moses in Rev 15 this song? I think it must be a song in the Bible. The only other possibilities are Exo 15, which Jews call "the song by the Red Sea" or Psalm 90 "a prayer through Moses the man of God".
The Bible does not say that the song in Exo 15 was written by Moses, just that it was sung by Moses and the children of Israel, whereas the song in Deut 32 is clearly written by Moses on the day he is to depart this life. Exo 15 is a song at the beginning of Moses' ministry, and Deut 32 is a song at the end, to be recited for posterity. Deut 32 is a far more weighty song than Exo 15. Also Exo 15 is specific to the parting of the Red Sea, but Deut 32 covers all the way to the end of the age.
Psalm 90 is "a prayer (tefila) of Moses", not "a song (sheer)". It is a great prayer to live a godly life in this age, but not a victory song of praise as would fit Rev 15.
It seems to me that the song of Moses in Rev 15 must be Deut 32, but Deut 32 is a prophecy of the history of the Jewish people. Why would Christians, mainly Gentile, sing this song at the time of their victory over the Beast? It may be that the singers are Jews who get saved during the great tribulation, but that is too speculative, without enough Biblical basis. Or it may be that this song applies in some way to the church also, i.e. that the church forsook God due to prosperity, but these overcomers overcame the Beast and his persecution, not degradation of the church.
I think the overcomers in Rev 15 just sing the end of the Song of Moses (vv34-43 or 28-43), which refers to God's vengence on the nations that persecuted God's People (Israel and Christians), which vengence will happen at Armageddon. The last verse of the song says, Rejoice Gentiles with His people, which is quoted in Rom 15:10 as referring to the church, which happens in Rev 15.

 I. Introduction vv 1-6
 v1 lit the words of my mouth
v2 this is a gentle and mournful song
v4 - Seven times in this song, God is called the Rock (vv 4, 13 x2, 15,18, 30 & 31). You can trust in Him. He never changes. He still loves Israel as in vv 7-13 and He still requires righteousness.

II. Preciousness of Israel to God vv 7-12
v8  "bound'ry" is literally "inheritance"
Septuagint (LXX) and Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) say "sons of God". Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) and Masoretic Text (MT) say "sons of Israel". Either way, this includes the New Testament people of God.
v9 LXX and SP say both "Israel" and "Jacob". MT says only "Jacob". (DSS does not preserve this part of the verse.) "Israel" includes Old Testament Jews and New Testament Christians (Gal 6:16). "Jacob" refers to the Jewish people during both OT and NT times (Jer 30:7).

III. Jacob's prosperity vv 13-15a
v14 lit. cream of cows and milk of sheep
lit. fat of lambs, and rams of the sons of Bashan, and he-goats
v15 - Jeshurun is a name used only of Israel (Isa 44:2). It means "upright one". LXX translated it as "beloved".

LXX and DSS have the phrase "So Jacob ate and was filled" which is not in MT or SP.

IV. The problem: Jacob gave up God vv 15b-18
v16 lit with strange gods. With abominations they provoked Him to anger.
v17 lit. They sacrificed to demons who are not God

V. God's response vv 19-27
v20 It is serious for God to hide His face from us. Things will only get worse after that. We must pray and take care of offenses so that God's face shines on us (Ps 4:6).
God hides His face as a test (Ps 13:1; 2Chron 32:31). As this song indicates, He may, after hiding His face, actively punish. (Deu 31:16-18)
v21 God says that He will provoke Israel to jealousy with what is not a people, that is with the Christians (Rom 10:19; 11:11-14). The Hebrew word for "people" means a particular race. The Christians did not exist as a people but were born again as a new people (Ps 22:31).
When I was an agnostic Jew, even though I did not know God, I knew that Jews were God's chosen people and thought that we inherently knew God better than the Gentiles. When I was invited to a gospel meeting and then over Christians' homes for dinner, I was amazed to see Gentiles who loved the God of Israel and the Bible with their whole heart. I did not see this joy among Jews, though I did know some godly Jews. I thought it wasn't fair. We Jews had been persecuted for so many years, and we have so many laws to keep, and here these Gentiles know You and love You and have Your presence! I did not understand the gospel message, but I was jealous of the Christians' lives. I tried to explain it away and I couldn't so I started searching the Bible.

The 2nd part of this verse, "With a nation void of understanding, I'll provoke you to anger", refers to the extremely foolish nations that the Lord will use to persecute the Jewish people.
v22 - This persecution of the Jews destroys the whole earth. Hitler's insane war against the Jews destroyed most of Europe, Africa and Asia.
v24 - The hunger and burning heat are caused by persecution. In Hitler's extermination camps there were extreme hunger and freezing cold, but not so much burning heat. That will happen in the future (Rev 16:8-9).

"teeth of beasts" refers to the subhuman, beast-like persecutors of the Jews, the foolish nation whom the Lord uses to anger the Jews. Hitler, Himmler, Heydrich, etc & etc were beasts. The same is true of the Muslim jihadists.  
"fury that crawls in dust" also refers to the absolutely evil, reptilian and utterly base persecutors of Jews. The Hebrew word "fury" here is Hamas. These terms ultimately refer to the Beast and his followers in Revelation (Rev 11:7 etc).
v25 lit. From without the sword shall bereave them
The "choice man" and "virgin" are good people. The "suckling" is obviously innocent. All these would be murdered in the persecutions of the Jews. This is what has happened. The innocent and virtuous were not spared.
v27 - verses 26-27 should be very sobering. Three times in the wilderness (at the golden calf Exo 32 & Deut 9, with the 12 spies Num 14, and at Korah's rebellion Num 16), God said He would destroy all the children of Israel. He would still keep His promise to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob by preserving Moses. In the 1st 2 cases, Moses intercedes with the reason given in this verse. This realization should be very humbling for both Jews and Christians (Rom 11:21). We should never think that God needs us for His purpose. God can cause our remembrance to cease from among men.

VI. God's lament vv 28-33
v28 - Who is the nation here which despises counsel? Is it Israel's foes, continuing from the previous verse, who are the "foolish nation" that the Lord uses to persecute Israel? Or is it the Jewish people who are foolish and unwise (v6)? Considering all the verses, I think this section refers to the foolish nations who are Israel's enemies.
v29 - "pondered their latter end" seems to apply more to the persecuting nation than to the Jews. The Jews are suffering and need to ponder their history, not their latter end. The persecuting nation is temporarily prospering. They need to consider God's judgment on all who persecute Israel, which judgment will take place at their latter end.
 v30 - This verse could apply to the foolish persecuting nation or to the Jews. I think it applies more to the foolish nation, because it adds specifics to v27.
v31 - "their rock" is the object of the persecuting nation's trust, and "our Rock" is the Jews' God. The persecuting nation's rock does not determine any outcome here. It is Israel's Rock: if He is with Israel, they are protected, if He gives up Israel, then 2 gentiles will chase 10,000 Jews, which is what happened during the Holocaust.
v32 - Israel is likened morally and spiritually to Sodom and Gomorrah many times (Isa 1:10; etc). At the time of the Lord's return, the whole world is of the moral condition of Sodom (Luke 17:28-30). Just considering this verse alone, I would apply it to Israel because of all the references to Israel being like Sodom. But vv32-33 are followed by vv34-35 which clearly are concerning Israel's enemies. Therefore, I think vv 32-33 are also talking about Israel's enemies.
The gross sins of Sodom were shamelessness for sin (Isa 3:9), pride, and not caring for the weak (Ezek 16:49-50).  

VII. The Lord's vengence on Israel's enemies vv 34-43b
v34-43b - is God's vengence against Israel's enemies
v37 - This refers to Israel's false gods and false things that they trusted in. All these will fail.
v38 lit. Let them rise up and help you that they may be protection over you.
v41 - Those who hate Israel = those who hate Me
v43 - MT and SP say: Rejoice gentiles with His people for He avenges the blood of His servants and renders vengence to His enemies and makes atonement for His land, for His people.
LXX says: Rejoice ye heavens with Him and let all the angels of God worship Him. Rejoice ye gentiles with His people, and let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in Him for He will  avenge the blood of His sons and He will render vengence and recompense justice to His enemies and reward them that hate Him and the Lord shall purge the land of His people.
DSS says, Rejoice heavens with Him and worship Him all you gods for He will avenge the blood of His sons and will render vengence to His enemies and will recompense those who hate Him and will atone for the land of His people.
Rom 15:10 Rejoice, O Gentiles, with His people!

Putting them all together:
Rejoice ye heavens with Him (LXX & DSS)
and all angels worship Him (LXX & DSS).
Rejoice Gentiles with His people (Rom & all but DSS)
and let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in Him (LXX only)
for He will avenge the blood of (all)
His servants (MT, SP)
His sons (LXX, DSS)
and renders vengence  (all)
and recompense justice (LXX only)
to His enemies (all)
and recompense those who hate Him (LXX & DSS)
and makes atonement for (all)
His people, His land (MT & SP)
the land of His people (LXX and DSS)